The Government of the Republic of Indonesia

State Philosophy

Indonesia is a democratic country that applies a presidential system and Pancasila is the soul of the Indonesian democracy. Pancasila is the philosophic fundamentals of the state. Pancasila consists of five principles that are interrelated and inseparable, namely:

1. The belief in one God
2. A just and civilized humanism 

3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Democratic citizenship lead by wise guidance born of representative consultation
5. Social just for all the people of Indonesia


Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI). East Timor was once part of Indonesia, but then through a referendum in 1999, East Timor became the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.


The population of Indonesia can be divided into two major groups: in the western region most of the people are from the Malay ethnicity while in the eastern region there are the Papuans originating from the Melanesian Islands. Indonesia also recognizes specific ethnic groups that come from a certain province/area and have specific language for example the Javanese from Central or East Java, the Sundanese from West Java or the Batak ethnicity from North Sumatra. 

In addition, there are also minority ethnicities derived from Chinese, Indian and Arabic descendents. These people travelled as merchants through trade exchange since the 8th century BC and migrated to Indonesia. Approximately 3% of the population is from Chinese ethnicity, although the exact percentage is not known as the last ethnicity census was held in the 1930s.

Islam is the major religion of 85.2% of the population, designating Indonesia as the largest Moslem country in the world. The remaining population consists of Protestants (8.9%); Catholics (3%); Hindus (1.8%); Buddhists (0.8%) and other religion (0.3%).



As in other democratic countries, Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers. The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties.

The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composing of members of political parties and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composing of representatives from each province in Indonesia. Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The judicial institution -since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution- is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.


Indonesia has abundant natural resources outside Java including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Despite being the second largest exporter of natural gas, Indonesia recently has become a net importer of crude oil. The agriculture products of Indonesia include rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber. The major trade partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States of America and neighboring countries namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. In the 1990’s, Indonesia’s economy experienced a set-back as a consequence of the economy crisis that hit most Asian countries. However, the economy is now relatively stable.



President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) has stated that according to US News and World Report survey results, Indonesia was in the second place among the world`s two most attractive countries for investment destination.
Indonesian President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) thanked the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) for funding several Indonesia`s infrastructure projects.
President Joko Widodo expressed congratulations to mothers and women on the occasion of the International Women`s Day in front of the recipients of Smart Indonesia Card, Hope Family Program, and Social Rice (Rastra) assistance.
Presidential Chief of Staff Moeldoko received the visit of the American ambassador to Indonesia, Joseph R Donovan Jr, at his office in Jakarta on Monday, to discuss a number of bilateral cooperation, including joint military training.
The Kazakh government is interested to learn the Indonesian National Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT)′s soft approaches to deal with terrorism, BNPT Chief Commissioner General Police Suhardi Alius said in a press statement released on Sunday.
Indonesia`s Trade Minister Enggartiasto Lukita revealed that the country`s exports in 2017 had reached US$168.7 billion, a year-on-year increase of 19.8 percent.
Bandung City has won the Asean Clean Tourist City award at the 2018 Asean Tourism Award (ASANTA), which took place in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
President Joko Widodo will follow up the request for cooperation for peace bulding in Afghanistan in his state visit to that country next week, Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi said here on Thursday.
Deputy Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Arcandra Tahar has said Indonesia plans to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) to two South Asian countries — Pakistan and Bangladesh — with the trading values at about US$6 billion for each country.
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