The Government of the Republic of Indonesia

State Philosophy

Indonesia is a democratic country that applies a presidential system and Pancasila is the soul of the Indonesian democracy. Pancasila is the philosophic fundamentals of the state. Pancasila consists of five principles that are interrelated and inseparable, namely:

1. The belief in one God
2. A just and civilized humanism 

3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Democratic citizenship lead by wise guidance born of representative consultation
5. Social just for all the people of Indonesia

Provinces

Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI). East Timor was once part of Indonesia, but then through a referendum in 1999, East Timor became the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.

Demography

The population of Indonesia can be divided into two major groups: in the western region most of the people are from the Malay ethnicity while in the eastern region there are the Papuans originating from the Melanesian Islands. Indonesia also recognizes specific ethnic groups that come from a certain province/area and have specific language for example the Javanese from Central or East Java, the Sundanese from West Java or the Batak ethnicity from North Sumatra. 

In addition, there are also minority ethnicities derived from Chinese, Indian and Arabic descendents. These people travelled as merchants through trade exchange since the 8th century BC and migrated to Indonesia. Approximately 3% of the population is from Chinese ethnicity, although the exact percentage is not known as the last ethnicity census was held in the 1930s.

Islam is the major religion of 85.2% of the population, designating Indonesia as the largest Moslem country in the world. The remaining population consists of Protestants (8.9%); Catholics (3%); Hindus (1.8%); Buddhists (0.8%) and other religion (0.3%).

Politics

    

As in other democratic countries, Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers. The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties.

The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composing of members of political parties and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composing of representatives from each province in Indonesia. Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The judicial institution -since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution- is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.

Economy

Indonesia has abundant natural resources outside Java including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Despite being the second largest exporter of natural gas, Indonesia recently has become a net importer of crude oil. The agriculture products of Indonesia include rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber. The major trade partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States of America and neighboring countries namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. In the 1990’s, Indonesia’s economy experienced a set-back as a consequence of the economy crisis that hit most Asian countries. However, the economy is now relatively stable.

 

 

Delegates from the 18 member countries of the East Asia Summit (EAS) will attend the High Level Dialogue on Indo-Pacific Cooperation initiated by Indonesia on March 20, 2019, in Jakarta.
The Trade Ministry simplified exports of palm oil and derivative products by revoking Trade Ministerial Regulation No. 54 of 2015 on Verification/Technical Tracking of Palm Oil, Crude Palm Oil (CPO), and Derivative Products′ Exports.
ndonesian female journalists talked about gender equality and the twists and turn of being female journalists in a male-dominated journalistic world at the cultural center of the United States in Indonesia, @america, in Jakarta, on Tuesday.
Indonesia and Egypt have forged cooperation in counterterrorism marked by the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Indonesian Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT) and the Egyptian Home Affairs Ministry.
Indonesia`s economic growth reached a five-year high of 5.17 percent in 2018, mostly fueled by household consumption, investment, and government spending, according to the Central Statistics Agency (BPS).
tate-owned train maker PT Industri Kereta Api (Inka) sent on Sunday 15 train cars to Bangladesh, a portion of 250 train cars to be exported to the country this year after the company exported 200 train cars to the country in 2006 and 2016.
US companies perceive Indonesia as a potential regional hub for conducting their business and trade, Indonesia`s Trade Minister Enggartiasto Lukita stated.
Indonesia has eyed export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Cambodia to meet the demand for power plants in the country, Vice President Jusuf Kalla said here on Wednesday.
Indonesian Vice President Jusuf Kalla and Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen held bilateral talks at the Lotus Blanc Resort, Siem Reap, Cambodia, on Wednesday morning, to discuss the development of cooperation between both nations.
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E-mail: embassy@indonesianembassy.hu